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Scientific history & progress

What is the text’s definition of scientific progress and how does it relate to cultural advancement?

On page 117 of our text, Writer Ziauddin Sardar is quoted:

The conventional (Western) history of science… does not recognize different types of civilization or cultural sciences. It has represented Western science as the apex of science, and maintained its monopoly in four basic ways. First, it denied the achievements of non-Western cultures and civilizations as real science, dismissing them as superstition, myth, and folklore. Second, the histories of non-Western sciences were largely written account of the general history of science. Third, it rewrote the history of the origins of European civilization to make it self-generating… fourth, through conquest and colonization, Europe appropriated the sciences of other civilizations, suppressed the knowledge of their origins, and recycled them as Western.

Using chapter 4 as your basis, explain what Sadar’s statement means in terms of scientific history and progress.

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